Tubal sterilization becomes an option when couples have reached the point when they are absolutely certain that they don't want any more children. Tubal sterilization is a minor outpatient procedure which permanently blocks the egg from being fertilized by the sperm.
Prior to tubal sterilization, ovaries release an egg into the fallopian tubes where it travels to the uterus. During intercourse, sperm travel through the vagina and the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. Fertilization occurs within the fallopian tubes.
After tubal sterilization, the ovaries continue to release an egg but the passage through the fallopian tube is blocked and pregnancy cannot occur. Women who have undergone this procedure will still have monthly periods, but the egg will be absorbed not discharged.
Although there is a surgical procedure to reverse tubal sterilization, it is expensive and complex and the results are never guaranteed.