Dysfunctional uterine bleeding occurs at times other than during a woman's regular menstrual period. This may be caused by hormonal abnormalities due to ovarian dysfunction, anatomical problems such as a fibroid tumor, uterine polyps, hyperplasia, adenomyosis, and occasionally endometrial cancer.
Hormone imbalances usually involve irregular ovulation. This can be caused by natural hormonal changes found in teens or women nearing menopause, or changes in hormone levels that result from: diabetes, thyroid disease, obesity, stress, strenuous exercise and anorexia.
Less common causes include tubal pregnancy or miscarriage, medications (especially hormones or birth control pills), bleeding disorders, IUD problems, a fragile vaginal lining, thyroid or pituitary problems.
The evaluation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding can include an endometrial biopsy of the lining of the uterus, an ultrasound, a hysteroscopy, as well as some hormonal studies. In the instance of hormonal dysfunction, this problem can be effectively treated with hormone therapy. In the case of fibroids or cancer, surgical procedures will be needed to treat these problems.